A Greek-based culture brought to the planet Argos by the Goa'uld Pelops, brainwashing the culture to believe that he was their all-seeing and all-knowing protector. Thanks to the Goa'uld's genetic manipulation, Argosians typically lived 30 to 40 Earth days, their genetic makeup vastly accelerated by microscopic nanites in their blood. In fact, Pelops was using the technology in an attempt to rapidly evolve a more advanced human host body.
Consequently, the Argosians have learned to live life to the fullest. When SG-1 arrived they invited Colonel Jack O'Neill to take part in the marriage cake of their people (unbeknownst to him), infecting him with the same nanocytes. Because he had a different metabolism than the rest of the people (and because he was much older), the nanocytes began to multiply at a rapid rate within his bloodstream, aging him even more rapidly than the Argosians.
While trapped on Argos, O'Neill taught the people that Pelops was but a Goa'uld parasite, and convinced them to revolt against their omniscient leader, tearing down his statue in the main hall of worship. Beneath the statue was discovered the device that regulated the life cycle of the people, projecting a powerful energy field to control the nanocytes. The transmitter was destroyed, allowing the Argosians to live normal, long lives.
Brief Candle - SG-1 is stunned to learn that the Argosian society is made up of people only weeks old, and work against time to solve the same problem which has infected Colonel O'Neill.
Politics - Daniel tells Senator Kinsey that SG-2 has recently checked in on the Argosians, and that they are living long, productive lives.