Technologically sophisticated race who were protected by the Asgard (via their Protected Planets Treaty) through centuries of their development. The governing body, the Galaran cabinet, only discovered the true function of the Stargate circa early 2004.
The Galarans have also cannibalized other technology such as the memory device, which they eventually used as the template in the Galaran memory technology. These new breakthroughs would eventually be used in savvy negotiation with other planets, including Earth, when the Galaran Emissary began to lead his culture in exploring the galaxy.
The Galarans' penal system is unknown, though high-ranking officials in the Galaran cabinet or Galaran General Staff can swiftly issue pardons to the greatest offenders. To maintain diplomatic relations with Earth the Galaran Emissary was fully willing to sweep a murder under the rug and permit the convict to leave, and even continue in his diplomatic role.
Collateral Damage - SG-1 attempts to force the Galarans to investigate a murder, but the people are far more interested in continuing to negotiate an alliance with Earth.